HOME     ABOUT VEGA     VEGA NEWS     NEWSLETTER    LINKS      SUPPORT US      CONTACT  
    INTERESTS     ANIMAL WELFARE     RECIPES     PORTFOLIO     YOUTH PAGE  
   >> VEGANIZING INGREDIENTS
HOME > FOOD AND NUTRITION

Food and nutrition

 
VEGA(Vegetarian Economy and Green Agriculture) has sponsored studies on.phpects of vegetarian nutrition, e.g. the iodine and selenium status of vegetarians.
 
     
 

Find out more about Going Dairy-Free and Life Without Eggs.

VEGA has also helped to recruit volunteers for major research projects into the links between diet and various.phpects of health.

 
     
 

Testing, Testing, Testing………………Veterinary Residues in Food

We analyse results from last year's analysis and tests.
MAVIS (Medicines Act Veterinary Information Service) has just released the data, which exemplify the constant need for detection and traceability to set beside the problems with Sudan Red.

The Veterinary Medicine Directorate (VMD) produces quarterly reports for the Medicines Act Veterinary Information Services (MAVIS), the latest of which, for the end of 2004, is to hand.

The VMD operates two complementary surveillance programmes for residues of veterinary medicines and other substances. The larger programme, the National Surveillance Scheme (NSS), implements EU legislation and therefore has a statutory basis. The programme covers the points set out below, and is funded by the industry sectors, in accordance with EU legislation.

The second programme is smaller and non statutory. It focuses more on surveillance of imports of certain products where the presence of banned substances is most likely to be found. The programme is funded by DEFRA. The independent Veterinary Residues Committee scrutinizes and advises on the content of the VMDs (and FSA's) surveillance work.

The VMD invites representatives of various active organisations such as VEGA to its open meetings and sends them detailed reports, from which we have abstracted material to give our readers an indication of the interactions between government bodies and agencies on the one hand and on the other informed NGOs and charities whose concerns range over many.phpects of farming, food, health and the environment. There are some dilemmas: reluctance to treat animals with drugs to lessen risks of residues in meat, broilers, milk, eggs, and honey may entail avoidable suffering for the non-human animal.

Materials analysed in the course of investigations reported for the last quarter of 2004

  • Cows Milk
  • Eggs
  • Feed
  • Kidney*
  • Liver*
  • Muscle
  • Plasma*
  • Serum*
  • Urine*

*Some materials were found to contain substances above action levels

Other products intended for human consumption that were tested and analysed in the course of investigations reported for the last quarter of 2004

  • Eggs
  • *Caged
  • *Free range
  • Honey
  • Cow's Milk

*Residues were found in some samples of these products

Species from which products were tested and analysed in the course of investigations reported for the last quarter of 2004

  • *Broilers
  • Calves
  • Cattle
  • Deer
  • Duck
  • Goats
  • *Hens
  • Horses
  • Partridges
  • Pheasants
  • Pigs
  • Quail
  • Salmon
  • Sheep
  • Trout
  • *Turkeys

*Residues exceeding Action Levels were found in some products originating in these species

Compounds Tested for in the course of investigations reported for the last quarter of 2004

Annex IV*

Chloramphenicol
Dimetridazole
Nitrofurans**

Anthelmintics (Wormers)
Avermectins**
Benzimidazoles
Levamisole

Antimicrobial Screen**
Cephalosporins
Quinolones
Tetracyclines
Beta Agonists
Carbadox
Coccidiostats
Ionophores**
Nicarbazin**

Gestagens
Altrenogest
Glucocorticoids
Heavy Metals
Cadmium
Lead
Hormones*
Estradiol
Methyltestosternone
Nortestosterone
Progesterone
Stilbenes
Testosterone
Trenbolone
Zeranol
Malachite Green*
Leukomalachite Green
Mycotoxins
NSAIDS
Phenylbutazone**
Pesticides, including PCBs
OC/PCBs
Organophosphates

Pyrethroids/Carbamates
Pyrethroids
Sedatives
Carazol
Sulfonamides**
Thyrostats

* These are compounds banned or with very restricted use in European farming and fishing.

** Residues of these compounds were found at above Action Levels in some products.


Enforcement. Naming, Blaming, and Shaming

Mr William Beckett, a dairy farmer of Brookfield Farm,
Bellbroughton, West Midlands, was found to have administered 12 different medicines, including antimicrobials, vaccines and NSAIDs, which had been imported from the Republic of Ireland.These medicines were administered without the appropriate guidance from a veterinary surgeon. On 25th October 2004, at Redditch Magistrates Court, Mr Beckett pleaded guilty to 17 charges of importation and administration of medical products contrary regulations in the Medicines (Restriction on the Administration of Veterinary Medical Products) Regulations 1994. Mr Becket was ordered to pay fines totalling £ 10, 200 and to contribute £ 5, 600 to costs.

Mr Edward Gay, a farmer of Drakes Farm, Musbury, Devon, was found to have administered unauthorized veterinary medicines to his animals intended for human consumption. On 6 October 2004, Mr Gay pleaded guilty at Honiton Magistrates Court to 2 charges of administrating unauthorized veterinary medicines, antimicrobials contrary to the regulations that Mr Beckett had infringed, as well as on one count of administering an unauthorised antimicrobial without the appropriate guidance from a vet. Mr Gay was given a 12-month conditional charge and ordered to pay £ 1, 500 towards costs.

Mr Morris Grose, a dairy farmer of Helston, Cornwall, was found to have administered unauthorized veterinary medicines, including antimicrobials and NSAIDs, to his animals intended for human consumption. On 30th August 2004 he pleaded guilty to 4 charges of administering these products, contrary to the aforesaid 1994 Regulations. He was given an 18-month conditional discharge and ordered to pay £ 1,000 towards costs.

Mrs Gwendoline Morris, a dairy farmer of Trewern Farm, Pontfaen, Pembrokshire, was found to have administered veterinary medicines including antimicrobials that had been imported illegally from the Republic of Ireland. These medicines were administered without the appropriate guidance from a veterinary surgeon. Mrs Morris pleaded guilty at North Pembrokshire Magistrates Court to 6 charges of importation and administration of these products contrary to the 1994 Regulations. Additional charges were withdrawn by the prosecution. The court imposed a 12- month conditional discharge and ordered Mrs Morris to pay £ 500 towards costs.

Mr Stuart Ridley, a dog breeder from Crumpsall, Manchester, was found to have imported and administered unauthorised veterinary medicines, including vaccines and antimicrobials, to his animals. He pleaded guilty on 25th August2004 at Manchester Magistrates Court to one charge of importation of veterinary medicines contrary to section 45 (2) of the Medicines Act and 2 charges of administration of unauthorized veterinary medicines contrary to section 45 (2) of the Medicines Act. Mr Ridley was ordered to pay a fine of £500 plus £500 towards costs.

Mr Malcolm Trevor-Jones, a dairy-farmer of Oswestry, Shropshire, was found to have in his possession, an unauthorised veterinary medicine, and an antimicrobial, which had been illegally imported to the UK. Mr Trevor-Jones pleaded guilty on 16 September 2004 at Oswestry Magistrates Court to one charge of having in his possession, an unauthorised veterinary medicine, an antimicrobial, which had been illegally imported to the UK contrary to section 45 (2) The Medicines Act 1968. He was ordered to pay a fine of £1,500 plus £ 1,000 towards costs.

Mr Owen Vaughan, a dairy-farmer of Tynewydd, Boncastle, Pembrookshire, was found to have administered unauthorized antimicrobial veterinary medicines, which had been imported illegally from the Republic of Ireland. Mr Vaughan pleaded guilty at North Pembrokeshire Magistrates Court on 23 November 2004, to seven charges of importation and administration of these products contrary to Regulation 3 of the Medicines (Restriction on the Administration of Veterinary Medicinal Products) Regulations 1994. He was fined £150 for each offence, totaling £1,050, and ordered to contribute £750 towards costs.


Mr John Matten, a cattle farmer of Newsham, North Yorkshire, pleaded guilty on 20 December 2004 to six charges at Northallerton Magistrates Court. Four of the charges were for the importation of veterinary medicines, antimicrobials and a NSAID, contrary to Regulation 3 of the Medicines (Restrictions on the Administration of Veterinary Medicinal Products) Regulations 1994. A fifth charge was for the administration of a NSAID under the same Regulations. The final charge was for the administration of an antimicrobial Prescription Only Medicine (POM) contrary to Section 58(2) (b) of the Medicines Act. Mr Matten was ordered to pay fines totaling £3,000 and to contribute £2,800 towards costs.


Mr Peter Willes, a Director of Willes Farming Ltd, was found to have administered veterinary medicines, antimicrobials, which had been imported illegally from the Republic of Ireland. On 6 January 2005 at Barnstaple Magistrates Court, he pleaded guilty to four charges of administration of a veterinary medicinal product contrary to Regulations 3 and 7 of the Medicines (Restriction on the Administration of Veterinary Medicinal Products) Regulations 1994. Mr Willes was given a 12 month conditional discharge and ordered to pay £4,000 towards costs.


Mr James Rogerson
, a dairy farmer of Game Farm, Fylde, Lancashire, was found to have administered veterinary medicines, anti-inflammatories and antimicrobials, which had been imported illegally from the Republic of Ireland. These medicines were administered without the appropriate guidance from a veterinary surgeon. Mr Rogerson pleaded guilty at Blackpool Magistrates Court on the 12th January 2005 to nine charges of administration of a veterinary medicinal product contrary to Section 58(2) (b) of the Medicines Act 1968. The court imposed a 12-month conditional discharge and ordered Mr Rogerson to pay £500 towards costs. When sentencing, the court considered mitigating circumstances presented by the defence.

Summary of Results on Specific Items

Red Meat

In the year 2004 16, 513 analysis had been completed, of which 34 contained veterinary medicines in excess of the MRLs.

Synthetic Steroids, Beta-Agonists, and Natural Hormones

Progesterone, three samples of cattle serum out of 328 analysed contained residues of progesterone at concentrations of 1 mcg/kg (2 samples) and 2mcg/ kg. The State Veterinary Service will be carrying out on-farm investigations into the cause of these residues, including collections of further samples. The investigation continues.

Nortestosterone, three samples of sheep urine out of 131 analysed were found to contain residues of nortestosterone at concentrations of 0.5 mcg/l, 2 mcg/l, and 3 mcg/l. Investigations have been carried out at the farms submitting these animals for slaughter, but no contraventions were found. The animal providing one of the dubious samples was an entire male (uncastrated) and the residues detected could be a natural concentration. In 2 of the other cases incomplete castration might account for the presence of the residues.

Zeranol, three samples of cattle urine out of a total of 236 tested have confirmed positive for residues of zeranol at concentrations of 1 mcg/l, and 30 mcg/l. Four samples of sheep urine out of 145 analysed have also confirmed positive at concentrations of 1mcg/l (2 samples), 2mcg/l, and 7 mcg/l. The samples also contained residues of the fungal mycotoxin zearalenone and its metabolites. The residues detected in 6 of these samples are likely to be the result of feed contamination with ingested toxins from the Fusarium fungus, rather than abuse of zeranol. The farmers will be given advice on avoidance of these residues and the SVS will carry out further investigations.

Nitrofurazone (as the semicarbazide metabolite), six samples out of 176 sheep kidneys analysed revealed residue levels between0.5mcg/l and 0.7 mcg/l. All these results are below the Minimum Required Performance Level of 1 mcg/kg set by the EU Commission. Details of feed and on-farm practices are being collated in attempts at identifying the cause of the residues. Investigations so far have revealed no faults in the storage administration, use of illegal supplies, marking of animals and periods of withdrawal before slaughter. The investigating veterinarians considered cross-contamination from feed or "contamination from some other source". The standard of husbandry on an organic farm in the investigation was rated "very good"; there was no obvious source of nitrofurans on the farm and the record-keeping of movements and medicines was "meticulous


Antimicrobial Screening, a sample of a calf's kidney has been found to contain a residue of oxytetracycline at a concentration of 9,900 mcg/kg (MRL 600 mcg/kg). This case has been referred to DEFRA's Investigation Branch. Toxicologists see no risk to human health from this residue, but there may be some minor disturbance to the gut flora". A further sample of a pig's kidney out of 657 analysed has confirmed positive for a residue of chlortetracycline at 1170 mcg/kg. Results from a follow-up investigation are awaited.

Sulfonamides, one sample of pig's kidney out of 586 analysed has confirmed positive for a residue of sulfadiazine at 2,300 mcg/kg (MRL 100 mcg/kg). It has been referred to the DEFRA Investigation Branch. Available toxicological evidence for sulfadimidine, a similar sulfur-drug, with an ADI (Acceptable Dairy Intake) of 0.05 mcg/kg bodyweight allows a calculation that " a person eating a standard 50g portion of kidney containing the excessive residue would receive a one-off dose of 115 mcg compared with an ADI of 3,000 mcg for a person weighing 60 kg A follow-up investigation of a pig- kidney containing a residual level of sulfonamide at 214 mcg/kg traced the contamination to accidental feeding medicated feed to a finisher pig. The farmer "has issued instructions to all farm workers to ensure that this kind of incident does not recur".

Poultry
Out of a total of 7527 analyses, 41 confirmed positive for residues of drugs.

Nicarbazin, eight further examples of broiler liver has tested positive above the JECFA MRL at concentrations between200 mcg/kg and 2, 410 mcg/kg. The Veterinary Residues Committee has advised "that investigations should concentrate on residues in excess of 1000 mcg/kg". This decision was based on data from investigation undertaken over a number of years. Where residues are confirmed below 1,000mcg/kg the Veterinary Medicines Directive is writing to farmers reminding them of the need " to ensure that these residues are not present in their produce and of the opportunity to attend workshops on how to avoid such residues run by Elanco". (Elanco is the firm supplying nicarbazin). Six farmers have been sent these advisory letters. Investigations into residues above 1,000mcg/kg are being undertaken by the SVS. These residues are "a food contaminant rather than a food safety issue: a person eating a standard 100g [portion of liver containing 3,414 mcg/kg of nicarbazin would receive a one-off dose of 342 mcg compared to an ADI of 24, 000 mcg/kg for a 60 kg person."

The table below gives results of analyses of feed samples undertaken as part of the follow-up investigations.

Analyte
Species
Matrix
Numbers of samples below
LOQ
Numbers of samples positive
Nicarbazine
Broilers
Feed
35
2

Investigations by the SVS into positive residues have found that the use of single bin system is the likeliest cause of positive residues.


Monesin, a further sample of broiler liver has confirmed positive for a residue of monensin at a level of 8mcg/kg. The SVS are carrying out an on-farm investigation into the cause of this residue. This includes further on-farm sampling.

Lasalocid, an on-farm investigation as a result of a residue of 415 mcg/kg in a broiler liver has established the likeliest cause of this contamination was early collection of the birds before withdrawal period had been completed. After the Veterinary Officer's visit the company carried out an investigation. They have reviewed procedures and taken steps to improve controls to ensure this incident is not repeated.

Heavy Metals, a further sample of hen's liver was confirmed positive for a residue of cadmium at 560 mcg/kg. The SVS will be following this up. Cadmium detected earlier in turkey liver as positive is likely to have a nutritional origin: the presence of fishmeal and limestone in the feed are likely sources. In one case (residue 769 mcg/kg) the birds were from a breeding farm and were 55 weeks of age when sent for slaughter, "which would have given considerable time for dietary cadmium to accumulate."

Farmed Fish

In 2004 1,352 analyses had been completed by the laboratory on 1, 333 samples.

Tetracyclines, two samples of salmon muscle out of 97 analysed proved positive for residues of this antibiotic at 165 and 300 mcg/kg respectively. The fish had been sampled in error before the withdrawal period was completed and were not due to enter the food chain


Malachite/Leukomalachite green
, a total of 77 scheduled samples of trout have been analysed for residues of malachite green, none was proven positive. In addition to the scheduled sampling 45 samples have been collected as part of follow-up investigations into three farms where trout tested positive in 2002/ 2003. The results are tabulated below:

Analyte
Species
Matrix
Number of samples tested
Number of samples positive
Malachite green
Trout
Muscle
45
2*
Leukomalachite green
Trout
Muscle
45
14*
Malachite green
Salmon
Muscle
36
5**
Leukomalachite green
Salmon
Muscle
36
7**

*A total of 14 samples were confirmed as containing residues. Two contained residues of malachite green and the leuko-form and 12 contained residues of the latter only.

**A total of 7 samples were confirmed as containing residues. Two had residues of both malachite green and its leuko-form, and 2 had residues of the latter only.

A report by the Environment Agency of a contamination incident involving malachite green on a trout farm prompted a fish health inspector to collect 2 samples of fish from the affected site. Both samples contained residues of malachite green and its leuko-form. Most of the fish on the site died as a result of the incident and the farm has since ceased commercial operations.

A previously-reported follow-up of samples of salmon were taken from four sites, two of which tested positive in 2003 and two in 2004 " following intelligence on the possible use of malachite green", The Government " recognizes that there are continuing concerns about the potential effect of malachite green and leukomalachite green on human health.
The Department of Health's Committees on Mutagenicity and Carcinogenicity have recently looked at data from studies carried out in the USA. They have advised that both compounds should be considered in vivo mutagens and that leukomalachite green should also be regarded as a genotoxic carcinogen. Their advice will be taken into account to ensure that the interests and the health of consumers remain fully protected".

Milk

The laboratory completed 2369 analyses on 752 samples. None proved positive.

Eggs


The laboratory completed 1, 098 analyses on 448 samples. Since the last report one further sample from caged production and 2 from free-range birds have confirmed positive for the presence of lasalocid at concentrations of 300, 200 and 110 mcg/kg respectively. A follow-up investigation of eggs from a caged system with lasalocid residues at 67 mcg/kg suggested that contamination of the feed either at the mill or during transport had occurred. There was no evidence of the use of lasalocid on the farm. A follow-up of lasalocid residues at 200 mcg/kg in free-range eggs established that the farmer concerned kept pheasants in fields next to one of the hen's paddocks. These were given feed containing lasalocid and "it was likely that the hens gained access to the pheasants' fields and had eaten some of this feed. The farmer no longer keeps game on this farm".

Game


No positives were proven from 182 completed analyses on 141 samples of wild and farmed game.

National Surveillance Scheme for Residues in Red Meat Results of Targeted Sampling in Great Britain Year 2004

 

Type of Compound/

Substance

Species
Age and Sex
Matrix
Numbers of Analyses
Number above Action Level
Nortestosterone
Sheep
-------
Urine
131
5
Progesterone
Cattle
Male
Serum
328
4
Zeranol

Cattle

Sheep

<24 months

Urine

Urine

236

145

4

4

Sulfonamides
Pigs
-------

Kidney

 

586
2
Antimicrobial Screen
Calves
Pigs
<6 months

Kidney

Kidney

179
657
4
2
Nitrofurans
Sheep
-------
Kidney
176
6
Avermectins
Sheep
-------
Liver
534
1
Benzimidazoles
Sheep
-------
Liver
520
1
Phenybutazone
Horses
-------
Plasma
181
1

National Surveillance Scheme for Residues in Poultry Meat Results of Targeted Sampling in Great Britain Year 2004

Type of Compound/

Substance

Species
Matrix
Number of Analyses
Number above Action Level
Cadmium

Hens

Turkeys

Liver

Liver

8

16

4

3

Inonophores (Monensin, Lasalocid)

Broilers
Liver
240
3
Micarbazin
Broilers
Liver
233
31

 

National Surveillance Scheme for Residues, Results of Targeted Sampling in Great Britain, year 2004

Type of Compound/

Substance

Farmed Fish

Species
Age and Sex
Matrix
Number of Analyses

Number above

Action Level

Tetracyclines

Salmon
Market
Muscle
97
2
Leukomalachite green ( detected under multi-residue analysis for malachite green)/ leukomalachite green
Salmon
Young
Muscle
131
1


Eggs

Ionophores:

Species:

Hens

Matrix Number of Analysis Number above Action Level
Caged Eggs 101 4
Free Range Eggs 97 2


Non- Statutory Surveillance Results: 1 April 2004 to 22 December 2004

Matrix
Analyte
Number of Samples Analysed
Number of Samples above Action Level
Imported Farmed Fish
Malachite green/Leukomalachite green
286
13
Imported Honey

Nitrofurans

Streptomycin

98

98

11

3

Quail Eggs

Lasalocid

Nicarbazin

29

29

10

4

Warm Water Prawns
Nitrofurans
279
19

 

Non-Statutory Surveillance 2004

Port health inspectors and shoppers from a market survey collected 1,350 samples during the period April-December. The Central Science Laboratory has completed 4846 of the
5, 311 analyses due on these samples. Since the last quarterly MAVIS report residues above the MRL or Action Level have been detected in 28 samples. A summary of these results is given below.

Nitrofurans, a sample of honey purchased from a retail outlet and imported from Argentina was found to contain residues of the nitrofurazone metabolite semicarbazide (SEM) at a concentration of 1.5 mcg/kg. The supplier provided testing and traceability data to the Food Standards Agency, which showed that the SEM contamination is likely to have derived from the jar gaskets and was unlikely to have arisen due to the unauthorised use of nitrofurans. No further action was taken.

Seven samples of warm water prawns imported from India (2) Bangladesh (4) and the United Arab Emirates (1) contained residues of nitrofuran metabolites. Five of these were collected by Port Health officials at Border Inspection Posts (BIPs) and two were purchased from retail outlets. Six of the samples contained residues of SEM at concentrations between 1.1 and 5.6 mcg/kg. The sample from the UAE contained residues of the furazolidone metabolite AOZ at a concentration of 71 mcg/ kg. Use of nitrofurans in food-producing species in the EU, and in produce exported to the EU, is prohibited. The Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) has written to her opposite numbers in the countries of origin asking them to investigate these residues and report their findings. The results have also been reported to the FSA, who will ask the European Commission to issue Rapid Alerts.


Malachite Green/ Leukomalachite Green, four samples of farmed fish imported from Vietnam (3) and Indonesia (1) have been found to contain residues of both malachite green at concentrations of 1.7 and 2.6 mcg/kg and the leuko-form at concentrations between 9.9 and 120 mcg/kg. A further four samples imported from Vietnam (3) and Indonesia (1) was found to contain residues of leukomalachite green at concentrations between 3.4 and 9.3 mcg/kg. All of these samples were collected by Port Health Officials at BIPs and included samples of tilapia (2), black tilapia (1), red tilapia (1), milk fish (2), black catfish (1) and cream dory (1). Malachite green has never been authorised as a veterinary medicine in the EU and should not be present in fish imported for human consumption. The CVO has written to her opposite numbers in the countries of origin asking them to investigate these residues and report their findings. The results have also been reported to the FSA, who will ask the European Commission to issue Rapid Alerts.

Following the findings of residues of malachite green and leukomalachite green in samples of imported fish from Indonesia and Vietnam, FSA officials have met with Embassy representatives from each of these countries, Malachite green is not permitted for use in aquaculture in Indonesia or Vietnam. In Japan its use is being phased out; only fish eggs and fry may be treated with malachite green. The MAVIS report states that "the problem is being treated very seriously by all concerned, and investigations have been initiated into the source of the problem in each country. These have, so fare proved inconclusive in Indonesia and Japan. In Vietnam two fish farms have been implicated in the supply of contaminated fish. The plants that had possessed the contaminants are currently suspended from exporting fish to the EU market, and more rigorous monitoring has been put in place until the problem has been resolved.

Lasalocid, six samples of quail eggs were found to contain residues of lasalocid at concentrations between 53 and 2,340 mcg/kg. It is likely that 2 of these samples are duplicates from the same batch of eggs, because their Best Before dates were within 2 days of each other. A further sample of quail eggs were found to contain residues of both lasalocid and nicarbazin at concentrations of 240 mcg/kg and 32 mcg/kg and 170 mcg and 35 mcg/ kg respectively. It is likely that these too are duplicates, their BEST Before dates being within a day of each other. All the samples were produced in the UK and purchased from retail outlets. The retailers and suppliers have been informed and have provided details of the feed suppliers. The sample found to contain residues of lasalocid at 2,340 mcg/ kg came from a supplier who keeps appropriately16 free-range quail and sells their eggs locally. The FSA advised that this residue was a potential health risk. The supplier has since confirmed in writing that in future he would be much more vigilant about reading feed labels and he had no intention of selling the eggs from these birds again. The concentrations of lasalocid and nicarbazin found in the remaining samples are a cause for concern because they should not be present "even though it is unlikely that, at the concentrations found, there would be any risk to consumers".


Nicarbazin, a further two samples of quail eggs produced in the UK and purchased from retail outlets were found to contain residues of nicarbazin at concentrations of 38mcg/kg and 39 mcg/kg. These were purchased from different locations. The retailers and suppliers have been notified "Toxicological advice is that at these concentrations the residue is not a significant risk to consumers".

Did you know?

New research shows that strict veggies might enjoy a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Find out more in Diet, Dairy, Prostate and Bowel.
Lacto-ovo vegetarian women are more likely to give birth to baby girls according to research at the University of Nottingham. See What are Little Girls and Boys made of?

Have you seen these pages?

<< PAGE TOP >>

 
 

Registered Charity No. 1045293
© VEGA - 2008

 

 

spacer spacer spacer
spacer RELATED LINKS
spacer
spacer spacer spacer
 

greensquare Dairy-free Labels
greensquare Veganizing Ingredients
greensquare Animal Welfare
greensquare Sheep Farming
greensquare Poultry Farming
greensquare The Chillingham herd